Sunday, March 29, 2020

30 Idioms About Common Shapes

30 Idioms About Common Shapes 30 Idioms About Common Shapes 30 Idioms About Common Shapes By Mark Nichol Figurative references to circles, squares, and triangles turn up in a variety of familiar expressions. Here’s a list of many of those idioms and their meanings. 1. To be a square peg in a round hole is to be someone who doesn’t fit in a particular environment, or in certain circumstances. 2. To go back to square one is to start over again because of a setback or an impasse. 3. The expression â€Å"Be there, or be square† alludes to often-lighthearted pressure to attend an event or suffer the consequences of being considered conventional and uninteresting. 4–6. To call something square, square something with someone, or square accounts is to agree with another party that neither party owes anything to the other one. 7. To circle around is to move in a circular motion to engage in reconnaissance or to figuratively evaluate a situation. 8. A circular argument is one in which the proposition is assumed to be true. 9. To come (or go) full circle is to figuratively return to one’s starting point. 10. Someone who could fight a circle saw is so tough that the thought of sparring with a deadly power tool does not faze him or her. 11. To say that something doesn’t cut any squares with one means that one refuses to be influenced. 12. To be fair and square is to treat everyone impartially. 13. To look someone square in the eye is to do so directly, indicating honesty. 14. A love, or eternal, triangle is a circumstance in which two people are in love with the same person. 15. To move in the same circles with someone is to have similar tastes and frequent the same locations. 16. Something on the square is done fairly, honestly, and openly. 17. To be out of square is to not be in agreement. 18. To run circles around (or run rings around) someone is to figuratively outcompete him or her to the extent that the other person seems to be standing still. 19. To run around in circles is to figuratively expend much effort with little result because of poor organization or planning. 20. A square answer is an honest one. 21. To square away is to rectify or put in order. 22. A square deal is a fair deal. 23. A square meal is a complete, nutritious set of food servings. â€Å"Three square meals† (often abbreviated to â€Å"three squares†) refers to the traditional daily schedule of breakfast, lunch, and dinner (or supper). 24. To square off is to prepare to fight or compete. 25. To square up is to settle or reconcile. It also means to confront someone or something courageously. 26. To square one’s shoulders is to literally straighten one’s shoulders before undertaking a difficult task or to figuratively prepare oneself for an effort. 27. To attempt to square the circle is to try to do the impossible. 28. To square something with someone means to obtain approval or permission 29. To speak or talk in circles is to discuss an issue or problem repetitively with no progress. 30. A vicious circle (or vicious cycle) is one in which solutions create new problems. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:English Grammar 101: Verb MoodPersonification vs. Anthropomorphism

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Peer Pressure Essays

Peer Pressure Essays Peer Pressure Essay Peer Pressure Essay HOW CAN PEER PRESSURE IMPACT NEGATIVELY ON TEENAGERS? Candidates Name: Kadian Chambers Candidates Form: 11:3 Candidates School: Excelsior High Teacher’s Name: Mrs. Smith TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF PROBLEM REASONS FOR SELECTING TOPIC METHOD OF INVESTIGATION INSTRUMENT USED TO COLLECT DATA PROCEDURES FOR DATA COLLECTION PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA FINDINGS RECOMMENDATIONS BIB LIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION I have been a student of the Excelsior High School for four (4) to five (5) years now and I have noticed that teachers and parents are complaining about there child(ren) academic performances are being decreased due to peer pressure. This School Based Assignment consists of one of the many issues that is occurring within the Excelsior High School. Along with how its affecting students and a few suggestions on how this matter can be solved. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM How does peer pressure affects teenager’s academic performance? REASONS FOR SELECTING TOPIC The reason I selected this topic was because I have noticed that adolescence nowadays are under the influence of their peers. Not only that but there have been numerous occasions where parents and teachers are complaining that some adolescence academic performance level has decreased due to the high impact of their peer groups. METHOD OF INVESTIGATION In order to collect data from the survey, I have decided to use printed questionnaires. Questionnaires, as a tool of collecting data have a number of advantages: 1. It requires time to be completed. 2. It can be done at the confidence of the persons required to have it completed. 3. It guarantees total confidentiality since respondents are not allowed to attach their names. INSTRUMENTS USED TO COLLECT DATA Dear Students, This is a survey being carried out at the Excelsior High School to determine the amount of students that peer pressure affected negatively. Your advised to answer to the following questions truthfully. Since you do not write your name anywhere, no one would ever know that you were the one that had answered the questions. Please be reminded that this is not a test so there are no wrong or right answers . All persons who are answering the questions are required to tick the answer to their choice. Thank you, Yours truly, QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Sex Male ( ) Female ( ) 2. Age 11-13 ( ) 14-16 ( ) 17-19 ( ) 20-22 ( ) 3. Family Background Single Parent ( ) Nuclear ( ) Extended ( ) Sibling ( ) 4. Are you apart of a peer group? Yes ( ) No ( ) 5. Do you consider your peer group to be of good or bad influence? Good ( ) Bad ( ) 6. Is your participation in a peer group affecting your academic performance? Yes ( ) No ( ) 7. What are some of the causes of peer pressure? Family ( ) Friends ( ) Financial Needs ( ) Others 8. Are your teachers or parents complaining about the peers you socialize with? Yes ( ) No ( ) 9. Does your peers, pressure you to do negative? Stealing ( ) Fighting ( ) Lying ( ) Fornicate ( ) 0. Was it your decision to become apart of a peer group? Why? 11. When you meet with your peers, what are some of the major discussions? 12. What are some of the influences being faced because of peer pressure? Smoking ( ) Alcohol ( ) Sex ( ) All of the above ( ) 13. Would you suggest that teenagers are to be apart of a peer group? Yes ( ) No ( ) 14. If the answer to question 13 is ‘yes’, why did you suggest this? It’s good for them to socialize ( ) It will have a positive impact on them ( ) Other 15. How does peer pressure affects your self esteem? Does it let you feel unwanted ( ) Do you feel unattractive ( ) Are you doubtful ( ) Other PROCEDURES FOR DATA COLLECTION A total of 20 questionnaires were prepared and was distributed to the students of the Excelsior High School. It was expected that at least 16 of these would return. In order to investigate how students academic performances are being decreased due to peer pressure, I have chosen random sampling. I have chosen random sampling because these samples were available at the time when the questionnaires were distributed. PRESENTATION OF DATA A total number of 20 questionnaires were distributed to the students of the Excelsior High School. Out of the 20, 20 were returned. Of these 20, 10 were males and 10 were females. RECOMMENDATIONS After carefully analyzing the findings of the research, my recommendations are as follows: * The school board could host a program that educates the students about the negative and positive impacts of peer groups. * Students could visit the guidance counselor on a regular base to be more informed and aware about the different types of peer groups. Parents could monitor their children by getting to know the type of friends they keep and checking their books more regularly to see how they are performing at school. BIBLIOGRAPHY * CXC: New Edition: Social Studies Essentials * kentcrockett. blogspot. com * www. notesmaster. com ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA CHART 1: LINE GRAPH SHOWING THE PERCENTAGES OF INFLUENCES FACED BY STUDENTS BECAUSE OF PEER PRESSURE In chart 1, 50% of the respondents indicate that they are being pressured to have sex, 5% said smoking, 35% said alcohol, while the remaining 10% admit o doing all of the above. CHART 2: BAR GRAPH SHOWING THE PERCENTAGES OF RESPONDENTS INDICATING THAT THEIR PARENTS OR TEACHERS ARE COMPLAINING ABOUT THE PEER GROUPS THEY SOCIALIZE WITH In chart 2, 75% of the respondents stated that their parents or teachers complained about the group they socialize with and the remaining 25% stated no. TABLE 1: SHOWING THE PERCENTAGES OF RESPONDENTS THAT STATED THAT THEY ARE BEING PRESSURED BY THEIR PEERS TO DO NEGATIVE Negative | No. of students| Percentages | Stealing| 4| 20%| Fighting| 4| 20%| Lying| 5| 25%| Fornicate| 7| 35%| Total | 20| 100%| Within the school, 20% or 4 of the respondents stated that they are being pressured by their peers to steal, 20% or 4 stated for fighting, 25% or 5 for lying and the remaining 35% or 7 stated they fornicated. INTERPRETATION OF DATA Within Excelsior High School, the male to female ratio stands at 10:10, with 10 males and 10 females answering the questionnaires. These persons fell between the ages of 14-16 years, which accounted for 40% of the respondents. 25% of the respondents within the school stated that their parents or teachers did complain about the peer groups they socialized with. This was evident in 10% that admit to doing all of the above faced because of the influences per pressure. The 20% of respondents that stated that they are pressured to do negative (such as fighting) by their peer groups coincides with the 5% that stated they are smoking. FINDINGS The research revealed that: * That students within the Excelsior High School are being affected because of the peer groups they are in. * That teachers or parents are complaining about the type of peer group they are socializing with. * That being in peer groups has a high impact on teenagers.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

What Is Meant By Market Failure And How Can Government Attempt To Essay

What Is Meant By Market Failure And How Can Government Attempt To Correct It - Essay Example In economics, a market failure takes place when â€Å"the production or use of goods and services by the market is not efficient†. In other words, market failure occurs when free market fail to provide optimum allotment of resources, either over-allocating, or under-allocating their resources, which results in economic inefficiency In other words, market failure occurs when free market fail to provide optimum allotment of resources, either over-allocating, or under-allocating their resources, which results in economic inefficiency (Francis, n.d). In such a case, there exists another possible outcome where the market participants’ gains would compensate their losses. Market failure is a serious issue as in consequence it disrupts social and economic region of a particular region or even the whole country. Thus, it is a challenge for governments to interfere and ensure that there is no risk of market failure. There are several ways in which governments can correct the sta te of markets: by public section production, regulations and antitrust legislation, taxation and subsidies (Francis, n.d). This paper discusses different kinds of market failure and the ways in which government can attempt to correct them. There are several general categories of market failure: market power, externalities, public goods, and equity. Market power is the ability of a company to influence the market price of a good or service, raising prices above competitive levels (Francis, n.d, ICT regulation toolkit, n.d). A company with market power can raise prices without losing a significant portion of its business to other companies. The rise in the prices above competitive levels may affect negatively the market as it results in diminished customer demand, efficiency loses, and harm on the public interest. Furthermore, companies with significant market power may abuse their power, using their leading position to reduce competition. Some common forms of anticompetitive conduct involve abuse of dominance, cross-subsidization, and misuse of information (Market Power, n.d). There are several ways in which governments can deal with abuse of significant market power. To start with, all national regulatory authorities (NRA) have to make an assessment of the state of completion in specific markets and consider whether such competitive behavior harms another companies and customers (European Regulators Group, 2007). In such a case, the dominant company may be required to stop its abusive behavior or make specific changes to its policy so that it would not be damaging to competition anymore (Remedies for Abuse of Dominance, n.d). This remedy requires the authorities to monitor the company continuously to guarantee that the behavioral change is maintained. Another possible solution is fining the company or its employers with direct responsibility for anticompetitive behavior. The firm can also be ordered to pay compensation to its customers and competitors who have been harmed by their policies. The European Regulators Group (2007) proposes functional separation in markets where non-discrimination procedures were ineffective in dealing with problems of abusive market power. Functional separation may involve breaking the company into two different firms with separate market shares, or separating competitive and monopoly products and services of the company. This solution may also include such elements as separation of operational support systems, brands, employees, and information management systems among new, individual business units. When deciding on the degree of the separation proposed, the NRA’s have to take into account the cost and benefits of this solution and base their decision on completed market reviews (The European Regulators Group, 2007). Cross-subsidization occurs when companies with market power charge a high price for their non-competitive products services and use different proceeds to subsidize low prices for compet itive goods. In such a case, governments can implement and enforce a price floor for the low-cost products in order to ensure that the revenue that is generated by the product

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

The Doctrine Of Insurable Interest Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

The Doctrine Of Insurable Interest - Essay Example The earliest references to insurable interest simply emphasised this characteristic of insurance. Since the insurer's contractual undertaking was to indemnify the insured for patrimonial loss, the latter had to prove that he had a financial interest upon the happening of the insured event because there could be no loss without an interest. In this very respect insurance was considered to differ from a wager because wagers did not contain an indemnity clause. The English common law was much to the same effect until 1774 when the Life Assurance Act3 was adopted. This Act introduced some important changes. South Africa inherited the English doctrine of insurable interest. This was brought about by certain colonial legislation4 which adopted English insurance law in the then Cape Colony and the Orange Free State. For this reason English law must be considered. In the recent case of Feasey v Sun Life Insurance Corp of Canada the Court confirmed that the interest necessary for life assurance must sound in money. At the same time it acknowledged the differences between indemnity and non-indemnity insurance. Special emphasis is put on the question of precisely what interest the parties intended to insure. It is clear that English law has not made much progre... It has even been suggested that insurable interest in life assurance in many respects is clearly out of touch with reality and that reform is necessary. Some important aspects of the English rules on insurable interest have indeed become firmly entrenched by trade usage and no turn-around seems possible, e.g. the rule that a person may insure his or her own life and that of his or her spouse for any amount he or she deems appropriate. On the other hand, some important matters must after the repeal of the provincial ordinances be considered as being open. Thus the question may be asked whether the existence of an actual insurable interest at the time of contracting is a separate requirement in law for the validity of a true contract of insurance. May a future interest for instance be insured on condition that the interest materialises before occurrence of the insured event ( Here there are in effect two questions. The issue raised most commonly is whether the definition of insurable interest is too narrow. Should unmarried cohabitants not be able to insure each other's life even in the absence of financial dependency Should the requirement of a proprietary interest be retained The more fundamental issue is whether it is obligatory to keep hold of the doctrine of insurable interest at all. In United Kingdom it seems to have been eliminated for definite types of business.1 The problem will have to be measured in the light of apprehensions about moral risks and, at a lawful level, the probable result of the Gambling Act 2005, which makes gambling contracts enforceable. Although the 2005 Act has not

Monday, January 27, 2020

Young Gangs And Criminal Behaviour In Malaysia

Young Gangs And Criminal Behaviour In Malaysia According to the National Youth Development Policy in Malaysia (as cited in United Nations, 2002), people between the ages of 15 and 40 are considered youth. However, the United Nations defines youth, as those persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years. The Merriam-Webster (2010) defined youth as the time of life when one is young, the period between childhood and maturity. Statistically, youth aged 15 to 24 contribute to the largest proportion of the total population (Economic Planning Malaysia, 2010). The youths are the future leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, the government of value and stressed on the development of youth. Recently, the government had allocated RM20 million to the 1Malaysia fund for youth development under the Budget 2011 (Bernama, 2011). As youth constituted to the biggest section of Malaysias population, their involvement in youth gang and criminal behaviours has received great attention from everyone. According to the Oxford Advanced Learners dictionary (1997), the term gang can be described as a group of young people, who are typically troublesome; regularly associate together. Kennedy and Baron (as cieted in Ngail, Cheung, Steven, 2007) defined gang as a group oriented and committed to anti social, deviant, and criminal activities. Howard (1997) stated that youth gang is a self-formed association of peers having identifiable leadership and collective actions to carry out illegal activities. Background of Study The risk behaviour among youth is an ever growing problem in Malaysia. A study revealed the risk behaviour among adolescents revealed that truancy (34.4%) was the major risk behaviour and followed by loitering in public places (21.5%); bullying friends (14.4%), stealing (12.9%) and smoking (12%) (Hidayah, Hanafiah, Idris, Rosnah, Ibrahim, Nonnah, 2009). An academic analysis on the rise of crime in Malaysia showed that there is an increase of crime from 70,823 in year 1980 to 156,455 in 2004 (Sidhu, 2005) . This amount to an increase of 120 percent which indicated that crime rate has increased dramatically. The crime index continue to grow from 156,315 cases in 2003 to 224,298 cases in 2007 which indicated the increased of 45% over the past four years (Crime and Safety, 2008). The three major races of Malaysian are Malay, Chinese and Indian. The Economic Planning Unit of Malaysia calculated the population of Malaysia in 2010 stated that Malays (21%) constituted to the largest group; Chinese (22.6%); and Indian (6.8%). Although Indian represents a small minority group, they have contributed to the criminal and gang related problem. Mr. Ramli Yusuff, deputy national chief of detectives, disclosed that there were 38 Indian crime gangs in the Peninsular of Malaysia with a total membership of around 1,500 in 2000. Indians are a minority in the country but criminals from the ethnic group are committing the most number of serious crimes compared with other races, he said (Concern in Malaysia, 2000). Aliran (as cited in Suryanarayan, 2008) provided statistical details that 40 percent of serious crimes in Malaysia are committed by the Indians; furthermore, Indians recorded the highest number of those detained in prison. Chapter II Literature review Most gang members begin their involvement in gangs as youth. Snyder and Sickmund (as cited in Sharkey, Shekhtmeyster, Chavez-Lopez, Norris, Sass, 2011) reported that most gang members join between the ages of 12 and 15 years. Three former gangsters has been interviewed and reported to joined gang during their secondary school life (Alagappar, Len, George, Lee, Wong, 2005). These studies indicated the crucial developmental period of youth is during the high school period. The Social Activities of Youth Gang Youth gang engaged in various gang activities. Futrell (as cited in Yahaya, Boon, Buang) stated that activities carried out by the gangsters in school consist of being harsh to teachers, threatening acts, stealing, and bullying or beating students. Another study indicated that youth gang especially high school students reported to have high prevalence of alcohol use, engaged in physical fighting, drug use and drug selling (Swahn, Bossarte, West, Topalli, 2010). Gang members have found to have greater involvement in delinquent behaviors and the gang affiliation increases adolescents involvement in violence (Madan, Mrug, Windle, 2010). The youth gang issues in Malaysia have been frequently reported by the media. In 2006, news published in Daily Express regarding gang fights and police rounded up eleven boys, among them were four secondary school students. At the same year, a group school girls engaged in gang fight by bullying another student was reported (The Star, 2006). This year, cases have been reported over newspapers. Guang Ming Daily (2011) reported that a gang of youth has been engaging in theft behavior and three teenagers has robbed and injured a sergeant. Recently, five men, aged 18 to 30 were arrested in connection with a clash involving 40 members of two rival gangs. In the ensuing fight, at least five members were injured and two vehicles burnt (Tahir, 2011). Sin Chew Daily (2011) has revealed teenagers vandalized the public property; a group of Mak Rempit refused to listen to advice and stabbed innocent person. The news being reported has indicated the significance of youth gang problems and the sev erity of the problems can range from vandalism to killing people. Risk Factors for Gang Membership Strain theory The traditional strain theories stated that some individuals are drawn to crime when they are prevented from achieving cultural goals such as monetary success or higher social status (Froggio, 2007). A more conventional approach of strain theory suggested that if young people are treated badly, they become upset and respond with aggression, crime and other deviant behaviors (Agnew, as cited in Froggio, 2007). Agnew stated that strain refers to relationships in which others are not treating the individual as he or she would like to be treated. Poverty. Sharkey et al. (2011) stated that people living in poverty experience strain due to the inability to achieve the ideal economic success; consequently, people may grow to feel despair and turn into criminal activities in order to achieve sense of gratification. There were 41 percent vagrants and beggars in Malaysia has been reported by Aliran (as cited in Suryanarayan, 2008) to be Indians. This may indicate the higher poverty rate is among the Indian community; hence, they have higher risks to engage in crime. A recent research in Malaysia reviewed majority of bullies were from rural schools and families with low income (Uba, Yaacob, Juhari, 2010).Young people living in poverty may find it difficult to meet basic physical and psychological needs; one way to earn cash is to join a gang involved in the drug trade (Gang, 2008). Gangs provide the perfect structure and leadership necessary to maximal criminal success (Sharkey et al., 2011). Inequality. Malaysias social workers and politicians said that Indians turn to crime because they feel marginalized from government development plans and lack equal education, business and job opportunities (Concern in Malaysia, 2000). When groups of people are denied access to power, privileges, and resources, they will often form their own anti-establishment group (Gang, 2008). Regan (as cited in Sharpe, 2003) explained that individuals joined gang as the gang provides sense of acceptance to them. Social control theory The control theory suggested that entry into deviant peer groups is a function of a lack of social control experienced by youth (Hirschi, as cited in Hill, Howell, Hawkins, Pearson, 1999). Youth are less likely to join a gang if they are committed and able to adapt to the community expectations (Sharkey et al., 2011). School. School as a social control system contributed to a childs adaptability to community expectation. High academic expectation and teachers expectation tend to play the role. The risk factors identified in joining a gang included academic failure; negative labeling from teachers; low commitment to school; high delinquent in school (Hill et al., 1999). Social learning theory Social learning theory believed that people learn through modeling. The role models of family members and peers tend to be the most influential in youngsters. Family. Family members are important models from whom youth learn from. Howell (1997) indicated that family members in a gang will contribute to the risk factor of youth for gang membership. Other studies related to family revealed that students with no parents, students from broken family and poor family management had greater odds of joining gang (Hill et al., 1997). Consistently, the findings obtained from Alagappar et al. (2005) interviews indentified former gang members in Malaysia were from troubled and lack understanding family (refer to Appendix A; Appendix B). Peers. In self-report studies, association with deviant or delinquent peers is consistently one of the strongest predictors of an adolescents own delinquency (Esbensen, Peterson, Taylor, Freng, 2009). Affective ties to delinquent peers are also strongly and consistently linked with youth gang involvement (Sharkey, et al., 2011). Consistently, a study of gangsterism in Malaysia secondary school showed that friends were the most influences referred to by the students as compared to their family (Yahaya et al., 2001). Other peer-related factors included limited or lack of association with pro-social peers or low commitment to positive peers (Howell, 1997). Cognitive developmental theory Cognitive developmental theory regards inadequate cognitive development as a cause of delinquent behaviours and gang involvement (Ngai, Cheung, Steven, 2007). Cognitive development manifests itself in ones ability to process and analyze information in order to formulate solutions to problems (Husband Platt, as cited in Ngai, Cheung, Steven, 2007). Raine (as cited in Ngai et al., 2007) explained that the ability involves empathy, perspective thinking, and ethical reasoning which are cognitive guides of ones behaviour. Ngai et al. further discussed that delinquency arises out of ignorance of others. As a result, anger, quarrel, and even violence against others may happen due to inability to understand and tolerate others. Maslows hierarchy of needs According to Maslows model of hierarchy, people have basic hierarchal needs, which include physiological (hunger, thirst, shelter), safety (security and protection), belongingness (love, affection, family, acceptance, friendship), esteem (self-esteem, achievement, recognition, respect), and self-actualization (self-fulfilment; Maslow, 1970). Findings from several youth gang research have been found to support Maslows theory. Physiological needs. A focus group of youngsters who associated with gang, aged 17-21 were interviewed by Alagappar and her group in 2005. When the researchers asked the participants what makes them more likely to join gangsterism, majority of the participants answered in need of material goods and money. Safety. A recent study reviewed by Taylor, Freng, Esbensen Peterson (2011) demonstrated that most youth reported joining a gang for protection. Research in Malaysia has found that some students were victims of bully before they join into a gang (Alagappar et al., 2005; refer to Appendix C). Belongingness. In a qualitative analysis, an ex-gangster was asked why he joined gangsterism, he replied: 9 out of 10 of my friends are gangsters; I would be left out and alienated if I do not join them (Alagappar et al., 2005). This result further supported the social learning theory as youth obtain the sense of belonging and identity through peers (refer to Appendix A). Esteem. Alagappar et al. (2005) indicated that one of the reasons youngsters involve in gang is to gain popularity and recognition from other students in school (refer to Appendix A). Additionally, joining gang will provide higher privileged for youngsters to vent out their anger. Once in a gang, self-esteem is increased through power, wealth, and status (Sharkey et al., 2011). Sharkey and his group further described that gang provide members with self-esteem and respect that they do not receive from others. Gang can function as adaptive social mechanisms for satisfying needs of some youths that are not met through traditional and socially acceptable means. Gangs offer many benefits that are unmet in their homes, schools, and neighborhoods (Sharkey et al., 2011). Regan (as cited in Sharpe, 2003) explained that gangs serve a valuable role in the development and socialization of an individual as they seek the approval of their peers and their identities; acceptance and identity is provided by the gang and thus makes membership an attractive possibility. Studies postulated that failure in academic or social areas motivates youth to antisocial behavior and involve in gang provide self-esteem, peer acceptance, increased pride, feelings of empowerment, and a sense of family, where other institutions have failed to provide (Kee, Sim, Teoh, Tian, Ng, 2003). Youth Gang and Suicide Madan, Mrug, and Windle (2010) worked on a sample of 589 ethnically diverse adolescents indicated that gang membership was associated with suicidal behavior. As gang members reported higher level of delinquency and witnessing community violence, this will mediate the effects of gang membership on suicidal behavior. Thus, higher involvement in criminal activities and witnessing violence may be responsible for increased suicidal behavior in adolescent gang members. Adolescent gang members not only are at risk form harming others but also themselves. Additionally, violence exposure is associated with an increased symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (Suglia, Staudenmayer, Cohen, Wright, 2009). As the gang members exposed to violence frequently, the risks for them to develop post-traumatic stress disorder is high which will in turn contribute to the suicidal behavior among youth gang members. CHAPTER III DISCUSSION CONCLUSION There was several risk factors found associated with youth gang membership. Although each risk factor has been reviewed independently, the exposure to multiple risk factors may increase the risk for gang membership. Analyses of the effect of exposure to multiple risk factors done by Hill et al. (1997) indicated that exposure to greater number of risk factors in childhood greatly increased the risk of joining a gang in adolescence. In other words, youths may be resilient to the disadvantage posed by several individual risk factors, but as these accumulate, this resiliency may deteriorate and delinquency may result (Esbensen, Peterson, Taylor, Freng, 2009). Thus, exposure to multiple risks factors will increase the probability of problem behavior such as violence or gang membership. The case studies in Malaysia indicated several factors that students joined gang (refer to Appendix A; Appendix B; Appendix C). The factors include family problem, academic failure, peer pressure, being bu llied, to gain protection, to earn recognition, being recognized and have privilege in expressing anger. From the developmental perspective, youth are experiencing physical and psychological changes. The period of youth has been recognized as transient, characterized by typical trials and tribulations (Idris, Yee, Tamam, Hamzah, Wong, 2008). In some circumstances, due to difficulties experienced, youth may manifest behavior that is deviant, abnormal and distressing. During this period, the socio-cultural milieu plays an important role in molding youths value and culture. Parenting, peers, school and society thus are vital in shaping youth. Western countries have contributed to the major part of intervention toward youth gang. A school-based gang prevention programme, Gang Resistance Education and Training (G. R. E. A.T.) in United States has shown positive preliminary results in reducing gang affiliation and delinquency (Howell, 1997). This programme provides students with age-appropriate skills to deal with life stressors. At the same time, the programme offers training for parents, schools and police officers to prepare them to deal with youth gang problem. Malaysia as a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic country, the use of intervention with youth should be wise and well considered. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the lack of awareness on Malaysian on the youth gang issues. The insufficient of youth gang research done locally has lead to the lack of prevention and treatment programme to deal with youth gang issue in Malaysia. This is the major limitation for the implication of intervention toward Malaysian. More studies involving the cultural diversity of Malaysians need to be conducted in order to get a better understanding of the profile of youth gang and the risk factors for gang membership, in turn enable better treatment and prevention protocol. PART B: INTERVENTION PROGRAMME Program Title: Esprit de Corps Aim: To prevent and reduce students from involving in gang As most researchers indicated that the risky age of youth to be involved in gang is during the secondary school years (Alagappar, Len, George, Lee, Wong, 2005), this intervention programme is designed to target secondary school students. This is a school-based programme that will be carried out during classes, in order to involve full participation of students in the school. Instead of naming the programme of anti-gangsterism, an attractive and unique name has been designed. The word Esprit de Corps means unity; to strengthen the bond among students, and teacher. Various programmes will be carried out during the month of April and May (refer to Appendix D, overview of programme). Programme 1 Educational programme According to Thraser and Lal (as cited in Yahaya, Boon, Buang, 2001), the occurrence of youth gang is often out of the sight of the teacher. Therefore, the first step to evaluate the occurrence of youth gang is to identify its existence. The programme will begin with an educational programme targeted on teachers. Training will be provided to teachers, in order for them to run activities during the month of Esprit de Corps. Purpose: to increase teachers awareness and understanding of the phenomena of youth gang and to equip teachers with the knowledge of youth gang in Malaysia and the skill to help student in need. Duration: 1 month (once per week) Week Duration Person In Charge Objective Description 1 9am-12pm Speaker: Social Worker Raising awareness The professionals served to provide information to the teachers Brief introduction on youth gang in Malaysia Prevalence Where, when, how, and why youth gang cases happen in school Risk factors QA session 2 9am-12pm Registered counsellor To equip teachers with the knowledge of youth gang in Malaysia and the skill to help student in need. Counsellors share their experience and skill while handling with the youth gang cases Role play session 3 9am-12pm Counsellor and Social Worker Help the teacher to be well prepared and be confident when handling the real situation Focus on case study to sharpen teachers counseling skill Information exchange with the professional to have a better understanding on handling the youth gang issues. 4 9am-12pm Social Worker and Teachers To prepare teachers to run activities To modify better activities before implementation Run activities (drama, debates, poster design, teambuilding games) that will be carried out with the students. share information and idea on how to strengthen the activities to match with the purpose. Month: April (every Saturday) Various activities that attempt to reduce students impulsive and risk-seeking tendencies are carried out by teachers after undergo the training. Programme 2: Ex-gang member testimonial Purpose: Create awareness about youth gang and consequences of joining youth gang through talks and sharing by ex-gang member. Target: Students Duration: 1 hour Venue: School hall Description: A former gang member will be invite to share his experience. There will be a brief introduction on the ex-gang member background. He will share about the reasons that he joined gang and his experiences as a gang member, as well as what makes him feel regrets and what had changed him. Due to his real life experience, his words may have greater impact toward students. Programme 3: Drama Purpose: Provide student a chance to involve with different character and understand the different roles of youth in different situation. Duration: 30 minutes Venue: Classroom (during moral class) Description: A class of students will divide into four groups. Each group will get a different title (bystander, cultural differences, vandalism and fighting). The students will be given a week of time to prepare for the drama. Each group will be presenting on each week. Other students will be the audience. Through this, the performer can get into the role and able to think as if they were in the shoes of others. In the end of the drama, pupils are invited to share their ideas and feedback will be collected. For example, the group with bystander will be assign to a scenario and it is accompany by the roles card which include Bully, Bullied, Bystander, Collude, and Challenger. The students will have to play different roles in order to enhance their emphatic feelings. Programme 4: Poster Design Purpose: Enable student to express their own view on youth gang and Esprit de Crops in drawing form. Duration: 1hour Venue: Classroom (During art class) Description: A3 drawing paper will be provided and students need to prepare their own drawing material. The best drawing will be voted by students in the same class and the best poster will be printed on T-shirts and sell to the public. The fund collected will be used in the next community caring program. Programme 4: Community Caring Program Purpose: increase youths moral convictions, social conscience/responsibility, and altruistic values through helping others; visiting underprivileged people may help students to be grateful. Duration: 5 hours Day: Saturday Venue: Orphanage, old folks home, center for disabled, rehabilitation centers, shelter home and other related places. Description: The teachers will discuss with their class to decide a place for them to visit. Students can buy some daily utensil through the collected fund or donate the money to the center. Besides that, they may prepare some activities to interact with the people at the center. Also, students may work together in cleaning the place and provide comfortable setting for the underprivileged one. Programme 6: Debates Purpose: Provide a setting to let student to freely speak out their mind at the same time enhance their critical thinking skill. Duration: 30 minutes Venue: Classroom (During moral class) Description: The title for debate is: youth gang, voluntary or involuntary? The title will be given two days prior the debates. Each of the panel has to prepare their own information. During the day of debate, each team is given three minutes to arrange their information. The first debater of each group is given 3 minutes to make his introduction. The second debaters will have 4 minutes to voice out their point. The third debaters will be given 5 minutes to argue the opponents point and affirm their stands. For the last debaters, 2 minutes will be given to restate their stands and conclude. An open discussion on the debate title will be held in class after the debate. Programme 7: Teambuilding games Purpose: To enhance teamwork among students; let them feel being involved, and accepted; strengthen the bond among peers. Duration: 30 minutes Venue: School field or basketball court (During physical education class) Description: All the students will be divided into small groups (8-10 people per group). Game instruction will be given. This game required team work where all members will have to get into the hula hoop which will be placed on the ground. The members in the circle can only stand with one leg. Group members need to help each other to ensure everyone is able to get inside the circle; the group needs to keep their position for at least 10 seconds. The game ends with an explanation on the purpose of game. Standing with only a leg is to illustrate that everyone has limitation and they need to tolerate and help each other in order to accomplish the given task.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Night World : The Chosen Chapter 1

It happened at Rashel's birthday party, the day she turned five years old. â€Å"Can we go in the tubes?† She was having her birthday at a carnival and it had the biggest climbing structure of tubes and slides she had ever seen. Her mother smiled. â€Å"Okay, kitten, but take care of Timmy. He's not as fast as you are.† They were the last words her mother ever said to her. Rashel didn't have to be told, though. She always took care of Timmy: he was a whole month younger than she was, and he wasn't even going to kindergarten next year. He had silky black hair, blue eyes, and a very sweet smile. Rashel had dark hair, too, but her eyes were green-green as emeralds, Mommy always said. Green as a cat's. As they climbed through the tubes she kept glancing back at him, and when they got to a long row of vinyl-padded stairs-slippery and easy to slide off of-she held out a hand to help him up. Timmy beamed at her, his tilted blue eyes shining with adoration. When they had both crawled to the top of the stairs, Rashel let go of his hand. She was heading toward the spider web, a big room made entirely of rope and net. Every so often she glanced through a fish-bowl window in one of the tubes and saw her mother waving at her from below. But then another mother came to talk to hers and Rashel stopped looking out. Parents never seemed to be able to talk and wave at the same time. She concentrated on getting through the tubes, which smelled like plastic with a hint of old socks. She pretended she was a rabbit in a tunnel. And she kept an eye on Timmy-until they got to the base of the spider web. It was far in the back of the climbing structure. There were no other kids around, big or little, and almost no noise. A white rope with knots at regular intervals stretched above Rashel, higher and higher, leading to the web itself. â€Å"Okay, you stay here, and I'll go up and see how you do it,† she said to Timmy. This was a sort of fib. The truth was that she didn't think Timmy could make it, and if she waited for him, neither of them would get up. â€Å"No, I don't want you to go without me,† Timmy said. There was a touch of anxiety in his voice. â€Å"It's oilly going to take a second,† Rashel said. She knew what he was afraid of, and she added, â€Å"No big kids are going to come and push you.† Timmy still looked doubtful. Rashel said thoughtfully, â€Å"Don't you want ice cream cake when we get back to my house?† It wasn't even a veiled threat. Timmy looked confused, then sighed heavily and nodded. â€Å"Okay. I'll wait.† And those were the last words Rashel heard him say. She climbed the rope. It was even harder than she'd thought it would be, but when she got to the top it was wonderful. The whole world was a squiggly moving mass of netting. She had to hang on with both hands to keep her balance and try to curl her feet around the rough quivering lengths of cable. She could feel the air and sunlight. She laughed with exhilaration and bounced, looking at the colored plastic tubes all around her. When she looked back down for Timmy, he was gone. Rashel's stomach tensed. He had to be there. He'd promised to wait. But he wasn't. She could see the entire padded room below the spider web from here, and it was empty. Okay, he must have gone back through the tubes. Rashel made her way, staggering and swaying, from one handhold to another until she got to the rope. Then she climbed down quickly and stuck her head in a tube, blinking in the dimness. â€Å"Timmy?† Her voice was a muffled echo. There was no answer and what she could see of the tube was empty. â€Å"Timmy!† Rashel was getting a very bad feeling in her stomach. In her head, she kept hearing her mother say, Take care of Timmy. But she hadn't taken care of him. And he could be anywhere by now, lost in the giant structure, maybe crying, maybe getting shoved around by big kids. Maybe even going to tell her mother. That was when she saw the gap in the padded room. It was just big enough for a four-year-old or a very slim five-year-old to get through. A space between two cushiony walls that led to the outside. And Rashel knew immediately that it was where Timmy had gone. It was like him to take the quickest way out. He was probably on his way to her mother right now. Rashel was a very slim five-year-old. She wiggled through the gap, only sticking once. Then she was outside, breathless in the dusty shade. She was about to head toward the front of the climbing structure when she noticed the tent flap fluttering. The tent was made of shiny vinyl and its red and yellow stripes were much brighter than the plastic tubes. The loose flap moved in the breeze and Rashel saw that anyone could just lift it and walk inside. Timmy wouldn't have gone in there, she thought. It wouldn't be like him at all. But somehow Rashel had an odd feeling. She stared at the flap, hesitating, smelling dust and popcorn in the air. I'm brave, she told herself, and sidled forward. She pushed on the tent beside the flap to widen the gap, and she stretched her neck and peered inside. It was too dark to see anything, but the smell of popcorn was stronger. Rashel moved farther and farther until she was actually in the tent. And then her eyes adjusted and she realized that she wasn't alone. There was a tall man in the tent. He was wearing a long light-colored trench coat, even though it was warm outside. He didn't seem to notice Rashel because he had something in his arms, and his head was bent down to it, and he was doing something to it. And then Rashel saw what he was doing and she knew that the grown-ups had lied when they said ogres and monsters and the things in fairy-tale books weren't real. Because the tall man had Timmy, and he was eating him.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Great Expectations by a famous Charles Dickens Essay

Great Expectations written by a famous man called Charles dickens. â€Å"Great expectations† is a famous and tense novel which was first published in the year 1860 to 1861 every fortnight in a magazine called all year round. The plot is based on a young boy called â€Å"Pip†, who in the first chapter meets and odd fellow in a gloomy, dark cemetery, pip walks on and soon finds himself turned upside down bye an ex-convict who threatens pip at the throat that he would cut out his heart and his liver if pip dose not do as he says. This dark gloomy fellow scares pip which makes you sympathize for pip. In chapter 8, pip is at a house with his mean sister and her kind and caring blacksmith husband Joe. As pip is a working class orphan he has no parents just is evil sister. Then a rich old, creepy women called Miss havishem asks pip to come round and to play, as he doesn’t want to, his sister forced him. When he arrives he ends up in a room with no external light only candles and a dead like figure who demands him to play is Miss Havishem, she demands him to play with her beautiful older then pip daughter, Estella, whom pip falls in love with, you feel sorry for pip now because he cant get her because she is upper class and he is garbage to her. In chapter one, Dickens sets the scene by describing the marshes, saying it is an open dark place and that’s were pip lives, so it make you sympathise for pip. When Magwitch comes, the mood changes to scary. When pip meets magwitch at the old gibbet, he says â€Å"a gibbet with some chains hanging to it which had one held a pirate. The man was limping on towards him, as if he were the pirate come to life†, he was using his imagination as if magwitch was the pirates ghost which has come to life, which gives the reader the effect of an old, white, dusty, see-through pirate has returned. When Dickens describes Miss Havisham room, he says it was a large room, well lighted with candles; no glimpse of daylight was to be seen. It seems pitch black but only candles laying around, pip sees everything is faded and old, her white wedding dress which she is still wearing, is white no more, but torn and ripped and grey. All clocks have stopped at the same time in this room. As if time has come to a stand still, except for the old wrinkles lady in the chair. Reading this makes you feel scared because if you were pip, then you would not want to stay in the room. In chapter 1 in the eerie settings of the marshes, we meet the sinister character called Magwitch. As he just pops out of the bushes and bellows â€Å"hold yer noise or ill cut your throat†, we get an image of a ruffled up man, a man with no hat but only rag on his head and broken shoes, and he is soaked in water and mud. When we see that he has a shackle on his leg we know he is an escaped convict. When he threatens pip to cut out his heart and liver and lies about having someone else who will get him when he is asleep in his cosy bed, then you see how much he wants the food and file. It is ironic that magwitch will be his benefactor after all his threats and bullying. When pip walks into Miss Havishem room and sees its all dark, we get a feeling of eerie. All the things the rooms are grey and aged, just like her, dickens writes:- Her shoes were white, a long white vale, I saw everything in my view which ought to be white†. He repeats the word â€Å"white†, which gives an effect of how old everything is. He describes she is like a corpse â€Å"I sometimes have sick fancies† miss havishem says and then she says she wants pip to play and clicks her fingers at pip and makes pip fell uncomfortable, which is weird for an old lady to demand a young boy to play. Pip who is the main character of Great Expectations is an orphan that lives in a boggy environment which makes you feel sorry for pip. He then meets magwitch and even tho he scares pip, as dickens describes him as â€Å"a bundle of shivers† pip still remembers his manners and he has respect for elders even magwitch. Half way through dickens changes 1st, 3rd person which show how small he is in retrospective view. When pip enters the room with Miss Havishem in it, he feels scared but he is still polite towards her. When she I talking to pop he tries to avoid eye contact wit her when Miss Havishem asks if he is scared of a women who has not daylight since before he was born, he lies and says â€Å"no†. when she calls Estella in the room, pip immediately fall in love with her, but when she says no because he is a working class boy, he turn his back on Joe and hates him because he did teach him how to be a gentle man and cries then kicks the wall. In Great Expectations, Dickens writes in the first person about Pip life. Chapters one and eight are the two key chapters that are enough to hook the reader. Dickens includes strange characters, like Magwitch in the cemetery. The story is a journey of pips life from child hood to man hood and it shows all his emotions and fears through out. Dickens uses his imagination which appeals to the audience and his vocabulary to his advantage, writing out all pips emotions, making you feel as if you were Pip, which makes this a very good and famous story. All of the characters are different and each has their own dramatic events. Great expectation is a well known novel because it hooks you from the 1st chapter all the way to the end.